Yes, and how many times can a man turn his head

And pretend that he just doesn’t see

(Bob Dylan)

Autopsy Proven Fatal COVID-19 Vaccine-Induced Myocarditis

COVID-19 vaccines have been linked to myocarditis which in some circumstances can be fatal.

This systematic review aims to investigate potential causal links between COVID-19 vaccines and death from myocarditis using post-mortem analysis.

A systematic review of all published autopsy reports involving COVID-19 vaccination-related myocarditis

Through July 3rd, 2023.

All autopsy studies that include COVID-19 vaccine-induced myocarditis as a possible cause of death were included

Causality in each case

Determined by three independent reviewers with cardiac pathology experience and expertise.


Initially identified 1,691 studies

After screening, 14 papers, 28 autopsy cases.

(The cardiovascular system was the only organ system affected in 26 cases)

In 2 cases, myocarditis a consequence from multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS).

Number of days from last COVID-19 vaccination until death

We established that all 28 deaths were causally linked to COVID-19 vaccination by independent adjudication.


Temporal relationship, internal and external consistency

Deceased, with known COVID-19 vaccine-induced myocarditis

Pathobiological mechanisms

Related excess death

Complemented with autopsy confirmation

Independent adjudication

Application of the Bradford Hill criteria

Overall epidemiology of vaccine myocarditis

suggests there is a high likelihood of a causal link between COVID-19 vaccines and death from suspected myocarditis,

in cases where sudden, unexpected death has occurred in a vaccinated person.

Urgent investigation is required for the purpose of risk stratification, and mitigation,

in order to reduce the population occurrence of fatal COVID-19 vaccine-induced myocarditis.

More information

Most cases had symptoms consistent with myocarditis prior to death, (chest pain, effort intolerance)

Choi et al, a 22-year-old Korean man

Autopsy showed intense inflammation and destruction of cardiac tissue including the conduction system.

Other cases had no reported symptoms before death.

Gill et al reported two boys, age 16 and 17, who died a few days after mRNA injection while asleep at home.

Autopsies revealed patchy inflammation suggesting that sudden arrhythmic death had occurred.