by Jon Rappoport 

August 22, 2022

At the dawn of the American Republic, corporations were not given legal status as humans.

They had none of the rights of the individual granted in the Constitution.

They didn’t qualify for due process.

Richard Grossman (1943-2011), an activist and towering scholar of US corporate history, unearthed these staggering and buried truths.

Corporations were chartered and allowed to operate by the states. If a corporation, in the eyes of a state legislature, violated a basic trust by harming the people, committing offenses against the citizenry, the legislature could summarily cancel its charter and literally exile it from the state.

The corporation had no day in court.

Again, corporations were not individual humans. They did not have the rights and freedoms of individuals. Corporations were not granted the rights of citizens in the Constitution.

At the birth of the American Republic, therefore, there was a double limitation on power. Central government and corporations were both strapped and shackled.

Of course, just as the federal government has been allowed to expand like an unchecked fungus, so has corporate power.

Here’s a mind-blowing statement from Richard Grossman:

“In most states a lot of the language from the early days, that reflected the subordinate nature of corporations is still on the books (including California). Some of that language is gone. But we still have the authority, in California, and other states, to define the corporations through their charters; we still have the authority to amend the charters; we still have the authority to revoke the charters — the language is there. We still have the authority to rewrite the state corporation codes in order to order corporate executives to do what the sovereign people want to do.”

“I happened to look up the Constitution of California of 1879, which was the constitution that you had when you joined the Union. Article 12, which runs several pages, is called “Corporations”. There are 24 sections in Article 12 defining the corporation. 20 of them have been repealed, the last set in 1972…”

Here are two places to start, to read Richard Grossman’s work (at

“Ending Corporate Governance: Revoking Our Plutocracy”

“1879 California Constitution, Article XII, Corporations”

Read More HERE